In this book the theories of Marx, Weber and Habermas are critically evaluated and tested against the cultural background of the medieval Iranian and Islamic thought. In this context Islam, Sufism and Zoroastrian thought are compared and contrasted. These three discourses are among the most important contributors to the social and political milieu that has shaped the fate of the people in Middle East, Central Asia, Asia Minor, Indian Peninsula and many other parts of the world for centuries. Each discourse is scrutinized in respect to a variety of issues such as the ethical and cognitive rationalization linguistification of the sacred theodicy flight from the world versus domination over it, etc. It is amazing to see how the trends of thought that belong to centuries ago determine the day to day life of the people in this region of the world today. Even more astonishing is the impact of these apparently abstract arguments on the actual political social and personal life of the people.